Electro static discharge (ESD) is the transfer of an electrostatic charge between two objects. This is a very rapid event that happens when two objects of different potentials come into direct contact with each other. One of the main causes of device failures in the semiconductor industry is ESD.
Charging results in one object gaining electrons on its surface area to become negatively charged. The other object loses electrons from its surface area and becomes positively charged. The small electric shock you may receive from certain objects happens when you become triboelectrically charged.
Triboelectrical charge is the term used for an electron transfer resulting from two objects coming into contact with each other and then separating. This may happen by simply walking across a room. Different materials you come into contact with may cause you to become either positively or negatively charged